Boiler Tune-up and Compliance Test - Power Boilers
Performance Optimization and Compliance Emission Test - Black Liquor Recovery Boiler
Diagnostic and Compliance Test Program - Power Boilers
Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide Emissions Testing
Volatile Organic Compound Measurements and Emission Factor Development
Non-Condensable Gas Emission Inventories



VOC emissions factors development assisted a major paper mill develop VOC emission factors to be used in their RACT submission. The initial approach was traditional. APCC conducted testing to determine VOC emissions from 96 sources, consisting mainly of roof-top openings and process vents. This methodology consisted of collecting grab samples using Tedlar at each source. The bags were sealed and contents analyzed immediately on a Ratfisch Flame Ionization Detector (FID).

Upon realization that it would be impossible to determine actual emissions under "normal representative operating conditions," and that a significant portion of the emissions could be non-VOC (methane), APCC performed a pilot scale study in the laboratory to determine emission factors of VOC (THC and species) per ton of dry pulp. Raw and intermediate process materials were subjected as simulated process conditions, emissions evaluated, and emission factors developed that were ultimately used for a VOC RACT submission.

Boiler Tune-up and Compliance Test - Power Boilers

APCC prepared and conducted a major fossil fuel fired boiler tune-up and compliance test program for a Maine pulp and paper mill firing two 50-year old boilers. Through extensive modification to burner configurations and operating procedures, accompanied by numerous particulate, carbon monoxide and oxygen emissions tests, APCC assisted in bringing the two units into compliance with Maine DEP and USEPA emission requirements.

Performance Optimization and Compliance Emission Test - Black Liquor Recovery Boiler

APCC performed a performance optimization and compliance emission test program on a black liquor recovery boiler at a Maine paper mill. Emissions of particulate were quantified from the twin exhausts of the wet bottom ESP while TRS was quantified at a single ESP inlet duct. All particulate and TRS analyses were performed on-site. Final testing demonstrated compliance with Maine DEP requirements.

Diagnostic and Compliance Test Program - Power Boilers

APCC performed a diagnostic and compliance test program at a paper mill to determine actual and optimum emission concentrations of NOx and SO3, cause of apparent high particulate emissions (i. e. visible emissions), and degradation of boiler ductwork from four fossil fuel powered boilers. SO3 sampling and analyses were performed using the controlled condensation method, allowing relatively short sampling periods combined with low (<ppm) analytical detection limits. Final testing demonstrated compliance with applicable regulatory requirements.

Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide Emissions Testing


APCC was retained by a pulp and paper mill to perform chlorine and chlorine dioxide emissions compliance testing on the three vents serving the washer hoods and on the wet scrubber outlet. Testing was performed at a paper plant that converts pulpwood and recycled waste sawdust into finished paper and tissue using the Kraft Sulfate process. Testing was conducted in accordance with NCASI Technical Bulletin 520, Optimization and Evaluation of an Impinger Capture Method for Measuring Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide in Pulp Bleach Plant Vents. Analyses were performed on-site. A total of three, one-hour tests were performed simultaneously at four locations. All tests indicated compliance with the regulated limit.

Volatile Organic Compound Measurements and Emission Factor Development

APCC conducted VOC testing at a paper mill. The purpose of the test program was two fold. First, preliminary data was collected to approximate VOC emissions from 96 sources, consisting of roof-top areas and process vents. Secondly, the program was designed to verify data collected previously by a different testing firm. The methodology consisted of collecting grab samples using Tedlar at each source. The bags were sealed and contents analyzed immediately on a Ratfisch Flame Ionization Detector (FID). The results were analyzed and results were reported to the client.

Upon realization that it would be impossible to determine actual emissions under "normal representative operating conditions," and that a significant portion of the emissions could be non-VOC (methane), APCC performed a pilot scale study in the laboratory to determine emission factors of VOC (THC and species) per ton of dry pulp. Raw and intermediate process materials were subjected as simulated process conditions, emissions evaluated, and emission factors developed that were ultimately used for a VOC RACT submission.

Non-Condensable Gas Emission Inventories

APCC performed emissions measurements with on-site analyses for non-condensable gases (NCG) - reduced sulfur compounds (hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide) and organics - methanol, ketones and pinenes; at two major pulp mills.

One study characterized potential reduced sulfur emissions from a number of sources during a simulated pulp mill shut-down to establish potential emissions during an emergency shut-down of the NCG control device that could result in an accidental release. The test program was performed during a planned mill shutdown over a 48 hour period.

The second study characterized potential emissions of reduced sulfur and organics from an older pulp mill in an effort to better define the needs of a planned NCG control device.

Emissions were quantified on-site utilizing a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with dual columns and a Flame Photometric Detector for reduced sulfur compound speciation, as well as a Flame Ionization Detector for organics.




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